Internet, energy shortages, climate change and transportation security as future risks to homeland security
A mysterious as "M.A.D.R.I.D. Report" titled Communication from the EU Trio Presidency of Spain, Belgium and Hungary calls for action by EU prosecuting authorities. The document, addressed to the Council and the Permanent Representatives Committee, is based on trend analyses by the EU agencies Europol, Eurojust and Frontex (Organised Crime Threat Assessment, Terrorism Situation and Trend Report , Frontex’s Annual Risk Analysis) as well as the "Joint Report by Europol, Eurojust and Frontex on the State of Internal Security).
The paper serves as a declaration of the soon-to-be-ended Spanish presidency and sets the tone for the Belgian presidency. The underlying analyses, however, show some trends. Thus, the following are considered "terrorism" (Terrorism in the EU), and fewer migrants are able to cross the EU’s borders. Before Malta, undocumented border crossings have decreased by 83%. Contritely, the authors of the communication also refer to a Eurobarometer survey, according to which only 8% of EU citizens consider crime as one of the two main risks.
As the legitimacy of the EU’s law enforcement agencies is increasingly being undermined, the authors follow up with a new report. On 16 pages, the reader learns about numerous shoals of internal security, from child pornography to climate change, not without being served advice on how to cope with them. The result is a smorgasbord of measures that amount to a further merging and cooperation of EU law enforcement agencies.
The "M.A.D.R.I.D. Report" serves as the starting point of a "debate" of the Commission for Justice and Home Affairs on "internal challenges", which will be held from June. The document is intended for the "short and medium term" identify priorities for EU agencies as well as the Council’s Standing Committee on Internal Security (COSI), upgraded under the Lisbon Treaty. The text expresses satisfaction with the Stockholm Program adopted in December and its numerous measures set out in an action plan to be adopted soon. The internal security strategy to be adopted this year "Internal Security Strategy" to be adopted this year gives hope to the Trio Presidency that the envisaged projects have been sufficiently substantiated and will be quickly implemented ("Internal security strategy" of the EU should become sustainable).
As final elements to combat the "roots of insecurity" the report emphasizes a "proactive, information-based approach that emphasizes prevention and anticipation". But what are the priorities of future threats that the guardians of internal security were so keen to know in advance??
Due to declining numbers of terrorist attacks, extremist violence is on the rise "extremist violence" has come to the attention of EU security strategists. This refers to the Basque ETA, but also to dissident "dissident activities" in Northern Ireland. In addition "escalating clashes between right-wing and left-wing extremist groups", which can determine a "likelihood that communities will be subject to systematic violence" increased.
In addition, the European Union is allegedly being used by al-Qaeda and Islamic Maghreb as a retreat to prepare attacks around the world. Here, the focus is on the "external dimension of internal security" as it is currently invoked and defined in numerous EU documents. Furthermore, the EU has been plagued by traveling Islamists on their way to "training camps" or to Afghanistan, Pakistan and Somalia. Warnings have also been ied against the Kurdish PKK.
Organized crime is said to have become comfortable in the "in the opportunities offered by a modern society", . This has been helped by the Internet, which has generated enormous profit through "multi-dimensional criminal activity" activity.
At least the International Monetary Fund pays respect: about 5% of the world’s gross national product is due to organized crime. At the EU level, drug trafficking is said to be worth 100 billion euros a year, and the loss of tax revenue is said to be about the same amount. Other risks include cigarette smuggling and product piracy, which are seen as a serious "serious threat to homeland security, trade and the economy" can be identified. In addition, there are mafia organizations that are said to have had a budget of around 135 billion euros in 2009.
According to World Bank figures, however, this is peanuts compared to corruption. 1-2 trillion dollars disappear annually into opaque channels worldwide – not least in those of the arms industry, as is currently evident in the case of the Italian giant Finmecchanica. The EU can hardly be held responsible for this, as in the "M.A.D.R.I.D. Report" serve as a shining example. After all, 78% of EU citizens share concerns about increasing corruption.
The Internet is praised as a tool for global communication and development, and is seen by the Trio Presidency as a tool for identification and a source of information, a marketplace, a recruitment center, or a basis for financial services.
The dark side of the Balkans is a headache, for example, as a source of information for all sorts of "offline organised criminality", including drug processing and trafficking, human trafficking, money laundering, product counterfeiting, money counterfeiting and illegal arms trafficking. In addition, the "M.A.D.R.I.D. Report" anonymity on the WWW a thorn in the side, as encryption techniques and Internet telephony have been increasingly used by organized crime, undermining law enforcement and surveillance.
In addition to 1.500 child pornography websites, the document targets terrorist groups that use the web for propaganda, radicalization, recruitment, or as a virtual training camp "virtual training camp" . Also "extremist groups" have been able to expand their previously localized activities through the Internet. A so-called "digital underground" is considered a stomping ground of stolen personal and financial data for "phishing, pharming, data espionage, malware distribution and hacking of corporate databases" and as a data airport for large-scale botnets.
The authors of the "M.A.D.R.I.D. Reports" will not mude, prayerfully mulling the connection between "illegal migration, human trafficking and vehicle theft, and to" and to emphasize a common infrastructure and routes with "terrorism, organized crime, etc." etc. As "growing insecurity" is the "security and the economic situation in third countries, especially in Africa", especially in Africa, the Middle East and the Caucasus.
There are warnings that the economic growth of certain EU member states could lead to new migration routes or modus operandi "modus operandi" could lead. The constant risk remains the falsification and misuse of travel documents, which leads not least to "frustrating" deportation procedures. Legal entries are also considered problematic, as they could invite longer stays. Migration-related "increased prere" eastern land borders, southern maritime borders and the "Balkan Route" but the cooperation agreement with the "Schlussel transit third countries" could be slowed down.
In addition to the Canary Islands and North Africa, Turkey in particular is becoming increasingly important as a partner in migration defense, becoming a central transit country, mainly to Greece, in view of steadily raised EU borders. According to Frontex statistics, 75% of all detected illegal border crossings in 2009 were recorded in Greece.
The "M.A.D.R.I.D. Report" warns of "natural and man-made disasters", whose increasing risks are both geographically determined and depend on the climate. Technology and knowledge would virtually evoke technological risks, while climate change would favor natural disasters. Southern member states are increasingly affected by earthquakes and forest fires, while northern ones are commonly flooded or drowned in snow, he said.
As "new risks" are identified as energy shortages or a breakdown in information and communication technologies, followed by chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear emergencies (CBRN), both as an accident and through "terrorist attacks" could occur. The EU is working on a comprehensive risk analysis on this, which together with the Commission and the member states should deliver results by 2012. As a precaution, the authors of the "M.A.D.R.I.D. Reports" already now that a "close cooperation between civil defense forces and law enforcement agencies is" is of note.
Because everything is connected to everything else…
No report without an outlook. The "M.A.D.R.I.D. Report" would like to see it properly taken into account in the forthcoming adoption of the "Internal Security Strategy". Because, as claimed, everything is intertwined with everything else, the inevitable answer lies in an "integrated approach" EU agencies Europol, Eurojust, Frontex and the anti-corruption agency OLAF, as well as other bodies such as Interpol and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.
"Crime prevention at the EU’s borders" has been "sophisticated clearing up" Europol, border surveillance plays a key role in the fight against organized crime and terrorism. Hierfur bastelt die EU unter anderem an einem "integrated border management" with the Eurosur network, which from 2014 will link all border authorities, intelligence services and competent police agencies and supply them with intelligence data from satellites, among other things (Europe’s Borderline). Frontex headquarters in Warsaw to become central node of Eurosur network. Hinzu kommt das geplante "Entry/ Exit-System", by means of which the stock of illegalized migrants can be determined in accounting terms in order to respond with appropriate decreases.
The authors of the "M.A.D.R.I.D. Reports" this does not go far enough. Instead, the "Operational capability" EU authorities should be made more flexible and cooperation and coordination in the Schengen area should be promoted, for example by maximizing the use of shared police databases "maximized" . Increased use of biometrics to prevent false travel documents, for which officers in all member states had to be equipped with mobile devices for checks at any time. The continuation of "high impact operations", such as those systematically carried out by Italy, Spain, France and Greece to counter migration, is also suggested. Everything else is to be discussed in a study on "border security" which will be launched this year and will present an "integrated and coherent position" position.
In order to better handle external threats, the EU should designate key regions and countries with which measures and structures can be agreed upon to strengthen internal security in this country. "Disintegrating states" were already identified in 2003 in the European Security Strategy (ESS) as one of the five core threats to the European Union and are now also challenging internal security.
In the area of "cybercrime" a further development of the European "Notice and Takedown Code" which would force providers to delete criminal content. Europol is setting up a cybercrime center for this purpose. Also at Europol, a tool for the early detection of radicalization and "radicalization and violent tendencies" among al-Qaida or summit opponents .
Although, as mentioned in the "M.A.D.R.I.D. Report" states that the citizens of the EU show little interest in internal security, it is seen by them as a "Burgerrecht" virtually imposed. With the recently adopted five-year Stockholm Program and its soon to be established Action Plan, the EU has created an instrument for the further development of its own justice and home affairs policy. The likewise soon to be introduced "Internal Security Strategy" will provide a further political declaration of intent for this, which in the slipstream of the Lisbon Treaty will increasingly "risks" targeted outside the Schengen area.
Transport security as a primary risk
But that’s not all: EU terrorism coordinator Gilles de Kerchove provided the Council and a dozen EU justice and home affairs working groups with a non-public communication two weeks ago, the contents of which make one sit up and take notice. Kerchove identifies transport security as a key risk and recommends that rail and road transport should also be more strongly protected against terrorist behavior in the future. Regarding "cyberterrorism, cybercrime, cyberattacks/-war and cybersecurity" he threatens with an imminent proposal on his part, not without already looking to the U.S., which has recently installed a high military officer as coordinator in the White House.
The local terrorism coordinator would also like to see more data sharing with the U.S., for which the latter has been extensively involved with "relevant projects" projects and full access to Europol’s analysis databases, which are controversial from a data protection point of view. Kerchove underscored the proposal that the EU’s anti-migration agency Frontex set up its own databases and use them in the fight against "all types of crime including terrorism" puts in place. The EU terror expert also considers development aid: because development is not conceivable without security, and vice versa, development aid for police forces in corresponding countries inevitably requires the construction of prisons.
Documents such as the one presented by the current Trio presidency "M.A.D.R.I.D. Report" or the recently distributed EU Terrorism Coordinator’s "discussion paper" pursue the purpose of no longer having to legitimize the internal rebellion. Instead, the papers are mutually cited and a rationale is staged against which there is still no cross-border criticism in sight within the EU.